Modelová železnice

13. února 2009 v 13:28 | okbus |  OK obchod
V novém oddělení Hobby v našem internetovém obchodním domě OK-obchod.cz jsme začali prodávat potřeby pro modelovou železnici. Jelikož modelová železnice má v našich zemích úctyhodnou tradici, rozhodli jsme se připravit pro vás, čtenáře našeho blogu, článek, který vás s fenoménem modelové železnice podrobněji seznámí.


Modelová železnice představuje zmenšení skutečné železnice a jejího okolí. Železniční tratě s kouzelnými soupravami, malebnými údolíčky a pozoruhodnými nádražími se přenáší do sklepů a pokojů fandů modelové železnice. Ve svých počátcích se prvky modelové železnice vyráběly podomácku, ale v pozdější době začaly být vyráběny soukromými společnostmi a prodávány v obchodech.

V dnešní době je modelová železnice tvořena třemi základními okruhy, které se dále člení na řadu prvků. Jedná se o ovládací elektroniku, modely lidí, prvků krajiny či nádražního vybavení, a zmenšenin vlakových souprav, kolejí, budov a opěrných zdí.

Modelová železnice se rozděluje na několik velikostí podle zmenšení a rozchodů. Nejběžnější velikosti jsou:
- velikost Z, rozchod 6,5 mm, měřítko 1:220
- velikost N, rozchod 9 mm, měřítko 1:160
- velikost TT, rozchod 12 mm, měřítko 1:120
- velikost H0, rozchod 16,5 mm, měřítko 1:87
- velikost S, rozchod 22,5 mm, měřítko 1:64
- velikost 0, rozchod 32 mm, měřítko 1:45
- velikost I, rozchod 45 mm, měřítko 1:32
- velikost II (G), rozchod 64 mm, měřítko 1:22,5

Každá lokomotiva je vybavena malým cca 12V motorkem na stejnosměrný proud. Pohyb lokomotivy je řízen proudem v kolejích, takže lokomotivy nejsou opatřeny žádným vypínačem. Lokomotiva má alespoň dvě vodivá kolečka ("+" a "-"), kterými odebírá proud z kolejí. Z vodivých koleček je proud odváděn až do motorku prostřednictvím tzv. kartáčků (tedy vodivých proužků plechu). Proud do kolejiště je dodáván prostřednictvím transformátoru a případně dalších ovladačů, které regulují pohyb lokomotiv a souprav v celém kolejišti za pomoci tzv. izolovaných úseků.

Elektronika však neslouží jen k pohonu lokomotiv a souprav, ale rovněž k dalšímu řízení "provozu". S její pomocí je možné "na dálku" přehazovat výhybky (za pomoci cívek, které má v sobě každá výhybka), ovládání semaforů, závor, a podobných zařízení.

V dnešní době se v modelové železnici začínají prosazovat také počítačové čipy, které vnášejí do řízení domácích vláčků digitalizaci. Řídicí systém je potom tvořen centrální řídicí jednotkou, která přijímá signály od ručních ovladačů nebo od vstupních zařízení, kterými zpravidla bývají počítače. Signály z řídicí jednotky procházejí celým okruhem a jsou cílovány prostřednictvím adresy, kterou má přidělené každé zařízení v okruhu. Díky digitálnímu řízení jsou soupravy modelové železnice snadněji ovladatelné.

Modelová železnice představuje zábavu, se kterou se setkal snad každý. Máte-li modelovou železnici doma, nebo pokud uvažujete o jejím vybudování, navštivte kategorii Modelová železnice v našem internetovém obchodním domě.
 

Buď první, kdo ohodnotí tento článek.

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